Last modified: Thursday 30-Aug-2012 02:16:15 EEST
UFO documents and books, government UFO files
Crop-out of the Kelsey Bay, Vancouver Island BC, Canada Oct-1981 UFO seems to depict a disk with a dome (this crop-out is grainy due to max magnification from 2nd generation negatives - uncropped photo)
Story: During a family vacation, Mrs McRoberts saw "a cloud over a mountaintop, suggestive of a smoking volcano" and snapped a photo of it. She didn't notice the UFO at the time the photo was taken, it was captured by chance.
More case details at ufobc, ufoevidence.
Higher-resolution versions of the photo: full uncropped, magnified cropout).
APRO, Dr.Harder and Dr.Haines (a retired NASA scientist, who in 2000 established NARCAP - compiled a database of over 3000 UFO sightings by pilots - see documentary "Pilot UFO sightings") took an interest in the photo.
An analysis of the Kelsey Bay UFO photo (.PDF) is published in the scientific report of the Sturrock Panel 1997 (.PDF), funded by billionaire Laurance Rockefeller.
Dr.Haines considered the possibility that it was just a small frisbee near the camera, and argued that a frisbee wouldn't fly well if it had a dome on its top -as the Vancouver object apparently has- nor would it show up sharp in the photo due to its quick movement.
Reports of very close sightings of discoid UFOs with transparent domes, with "human-looking" UFO-occupants, include Mrs.Roestenberg, age 29 at the time, and her two sons over her home near Ranton, Staffordshire, England in Oct-1954 - sketch (ref: various video interviews, incl. one in Arthur C Clarke's "Mysterious World UFOs"). Extract from BBC's "Out of this world" 1977 (duration 6min):
Below: Another similar case near Cowichan Hospital, again in Vancouver Island BC Canada on New Year's Eve 1-Jan-1970. More: ufoevidence, ufobc.
Mr Fregnale, Auvergne, Lac Chauvet, France 1952 UFO Photos (2 of a total of 4) analyzed by GEPAN -later SEPRA- (official UFO study project in France) and considered genuine.
LAC CHAUVET, France 1952: Mr. Fregnale electrical engineer of Le Puy, was hiking in the area of Bessem Friday in search for geological study, near Lake Chauvet, when he saw a kind of disc that crossed the sky from West to East. He took 4 photos.
"I had the time to take four shots very quickly. I saw the machine approximately during 50 seconds and after having taken the photographs I observed the craft with binoculars. According to my observations and calculations I made afterwards, if the saucer were at 3.000 meters it was going at approximately 300 meters per second. If it were at 8.000 meters its speed was larger obvioulsy and could reach 800 meters per second. I heard absolutely no noise.
"The craft - as often told - had the shape of an oval saucer. Below and in the center it seemed that there is a light bulge, but I am not certain. Around the circular part, a brilliant circle appeared. I suppose that above the apparatus, a rotor, or some other gyroscopic system, rotated very quickly, which would explain the reflection that one very clearly sees on the photographs that I took."
-- Translated extract from report in French newspaper "Le Meridional", 1952
The latest study of the 1952 negatives was published by Dr. Guerin in 1994:
"... We have demonstrated that the photographs showed a disk-shaped object located at a large distance in the sky and, thus, having large dimensions ... The disk was flying along a straight and horizontal trajectory, keeping an inclination to the horizontal plane, about the axis trajectory and at an angle which remained between about 5 degrees and 12 degrees. The eccentric spot remained aligned along this axis during the observation, which makes unlikely the possibility of forgery by means of a model hung at the end of a wire or thrown into the air" -- SSE Vol.8, Num.4, Art.1 1994 "A Scientific Analysis of Four Photographs of a Flying Disk Near Lac Chauvet (France)" by Pierre Guerin, Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris, France
Summary: A selection of popular UFO books and documents. Privately produced briefing documents aiming to familiarize high government officials with the UFO evidence e.g. French COMETA Report, Rockefeller UFO Briefing Document, The UFO Enigma - Congressional Research Report, NICAP/R.H.Hall The UFO Evidence. Various declassified government UFO files (Brazil, Canada, France, Denmark, Russia, UK, USA)
Note: Titles in bold are highly recommended reading.
Freely downloadable material (either public domain or copyright has expired).
French COMETA Report "UFOs and Defense: What should we prepare for?" (1999) ("Les Ovni Et La Defense: A quoi doit-on se preparer?").
This is a document prepared by the COMETA group, an independent (non-government) association of French scientists and retired high-ranking military officers, most formerly associated with IHEDN (Institute of Higher Education for National Defense, roughly equivalent to other countries' War College) in France. The report is prefaced by General Bernard Norlain of the Air Force, former Director of IHEDN, and it begins with a preamble by Andre Lebeau, former President of the National Center for Space Studies (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales or CNES, the French equivalent of NASA). Contributors include Jean-Claude Ribes, astrophysicist and former director of the Lyon's Observatory, and several top military officers of the French Airforce, Navy and Army.
The COMETA document was not intended for the general public, and initially it was only sent to French President Jacques Chirac and to Prime Minister Lionel Jospin, among other officials. However, some time later it was published in French weekly VSD, as according to General Letty "we felt that we had an information duty towards a mature public". It did not receive any official reactions and was largely ignored by the english-speaking media (US freelance journalist Leslie Kean encountered resistance when trying to publish an article about it in US media; a shorter version of her article appeared in the Boston Globe and was carried by the New York Times Wire Service in May-2000), but was widely discussed in Internet circles. Note: Leslie Kean is currently Director of the Coalition for Freedom of Information (CFI), a new organization based in Washington, DC.
Impact: While the COMETA Report didn't offer any new insights, it did have some impact, because of the high stature of its contributors, and its conclusion that "the extraterrestrial explanation for UFOs is quite possible and cannot be ignored".
Availability: Originally a 90-page long special published with French weekly magazine VSD. A version translated to English, but without the images of the printed edition, is available from FUFOR or on-line at: Part 1 (.pdf) and Part 2 (.pdf) or at archive.org.
The COMETA Report was published again in 2003, in book form, with 222 pages of text plus 12 pages of pictures, by Editions du Rocher. It is also available in paperback, published by Editions J'Ai Lu in 2006.
Further reading: ufologie, ufoevidence.
Related: It is well known that France created an official organization for the study of UFOs under CNES, first called GEPAN in 1977 and later SEPRA in 1988 -see From GEPAN to SEPRA: Official UFO studies in France (.PDF 105K)-.
In Mar-2007, at www.cnes-geipan.fr, CNES published parts of the French UFO sighting database with more than 100,000 pages of witness testimony, photographs, film footage and audiotapes of officially investigated cases, collected since 1954.
Rockefeller-sponsored "UFO Briefing Document - The best available evidence" (1995) by aviation writer Don Berliner, with Marie Galbraith (wife of banker Evan Griffith Galbraith 1928-2008, US Ambassador to France from 1981 to 1985 under Ronald Reagan and the Secretary of Defense Representative in Europe under Donald Rumsfeld from 2002 to 2007) and Chilean-American writer Antonio Huneeus. Chairman of the Fund for UFO Research Richard Hall also wrote a separate executive summary. It was endorsed by 3 historical UFO organizations in USA (CUFOS, MUFON, FUFOR).
Financed by billionaire Laurance Rockefeller, roughly 1,000 copies of this 168-page document were delivered in 1995 to President Clinton, U.S. Congress, Heads of State and other potentially influencial people around the world.
Download it as PDF, or read it online at HTML1 or at HTML2. It is also available as (rather poor quality) mass paperback edition from Amazon
(Note: During the 1990s, billionaire philanthropist Laurance S. Rockefeller (1910-2004) sponsored several UFO-related projects. This has come to be known as the "Rockefeller UFO initiative" since in some cases they went beyond funding and included an actual lobbying effort to the Clinton White House, undertaken by Rockefeller himself and his lawyer Henry Diamond, in the early and mid-90s)
The report is comprised of three parts: First is a brief Overview, discussing the general case for UFO reality and the problem of government secrecy. Part two, the most lengthy, details 18 major UFO cases from the "foo fighters" of 1944-45 to the 1989-90 sighting wave over Belgium. Cases illustrate some of the most intriguing aspects of the UFO mystery, including their being tracked on military radar, attempted intercepts by military airplanes, and landings which left physical traces. Various UFO experts may quibble over the inclusion or exclusion of some cases, but in general the selection is well thought out and impressive. Part three is comprised mainly of quotes from various world figures, including leading military and government officials, astronauts, and scientists from 17 countries, on the reality or possibility of UFOs and alien contact. They support the contention that UFOs are real, baffling and worth far more serious study than they have yet received. The point is made that the people of the world have a right to know more about this long-term scientific mystery.
"The UFO Enigma - Congressional Research Report" (1983) by Marcia S. Smith and George D. Havas, Science Policy Research Division. 143 pages.
Abstract: Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) have been a source of concern, anxiety, and ridicule for more than three decades in the United States, and for centuries on a global scale. The question in the case of UFOs is not whether there is other intelligent life in the universe, but whether it has visited earth, and if not, then what accounts for the thousands of reports of strange lights and phenomena which seem to have no other explanation? This report is an updated edition of the 1976 CRS study by the same title, and adds material on what has happened since the mid-1970s in terms of U.S. government involvement in solving the UFO puzzle, and information that has been released under the Freedom of Information Act.
Related: Marcia Smith story by Canadian UFO researcher Grant Cameron, creator of the presidentialufo.com site
"UFOs: What to Do?" (1968) was an unpublished internal document by RAND Corporation in USA (a global policy think-tank focusing on US national security, thought to be affiliated with the US military-industrial complex; RAND used to be very influential in defining US military strategy in the 1950s and 1960s). For a long time RAND denied its existence, probably because it took a distinct pro-UFO stance and at the same time several 3-letter agencies in USA were evidently busy with anti-UFO propaganda. In Jun-2000 it was released to the public. Get it from any of the following sources: rand.org (PDF 1.4MB), NICAP, ufologie
"The UFO Evidence" (1964) compiled by Richard H. Hall on behalf of the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP), the most prominent civilian UFO organization of the 1950s and 1960s. Few people at that time were aware of the scope and consistency of UFO reports by credible witnesses such as scientists, professional pilots, police officers, and even U.S. Air Force personnel.
When The UFO Evidence was released in July 1964, coinciding with a new wave of sightings after a lull of several years, it received national and international news coverage as well as serious attention in the U.S. Congress. According to its author R.H.Hall:
"[The UFO Evidence (1964)] played an important role in bringing about congressional hearings and later editions contained strong endorsements by various senators and representatives. House Majority Leader John McCormack (D-Mass.) requested two copies of the report, one for his Capitol Hill office and one for his state home office. Dozen of federal government agencies (including Department of Defense) and scientific and industrial organizations requested copies. Members of Congress were besieged with requests for hearings. (The correspondence files showing the influence of The UFO Evidence are still in my possession.)
The upsurge in UFO sightings beginning in 1964 helped substantially, but it was NICAP's ability to gather and exploit this information that helped speed up the agenda, assisted by such valuable allies as James McDonald. Clearly, the pressure applied by NICAP, primarily though is documentary report, was centrally important in bringing about hearings in 1966 and again in 1968." -- src: IUR Vol. 26:1, Spring, 2001, pp. 13-16
Over 40 years of data since then have replicated many of its findings.
Full text: nicap.
"The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects" (1956) by Captain (USAF) Edward J. Ruppelt who was in charge of the US Air Force's UFO Project "Blue Book" from 1951 until 1953 and later engineer at Northrop. This is a book written from a unique insider's point of view, who seems open-minded and mystified.
Many long-time UFO researchers (e.g. Stanton Friedman, Jerome Clark) have credited this book for igniting their interest in the UFO subject, so it played a significant part in shaping UFO history.
The first edition (Doubleday, NY, 1956) had ended with Chapter Seventeen, "What Are UFOs?" and Ruppelt's conclusion: "Only time will tell."
However in 1959, four years after writing the first edition, Ruppelt seemed to have had a change of heart. A revised edition of the book appeared with three new skeptical chapters added, and the book now ended with "we're stuck with our Space Age Myth -- the UFO". Ruppelt died of a heart attack on September 15, 1960, at the age of 37.
Some UFO researchers have suggested that Ruppelt was pressured to renege and that played a part in his early demise, e.g. Major USMC Don Keyhoe (founder of NICAP) in a late 1970s interview with Bob Pratt:
PRATT: I know Ruppelt's book mentioned that several officers in the Pentagon seemed to be believers but he didn't name anybody.
KEYHOE: Yeah, well, too bad about Ruppelt. See, he came out with that book and it caused the Air Force a lot of trouble. He had made some statements in public, articles and so forth, and newspaper interviews, and they put the heat on him. Well, after he had gone on inactive, he got a job with an aerospace company, and the Air Force put the heat on him and also the company. If he didn't renege on some of these things he said, they were not going to have anything more to do with the company. So he added three new chapters to the (revised edition of the) book . . . and he completely reneged on the whole thing and said there was no evidence. It was a ridiculous thing and all that which crucified him. He died of a heart attack shortly after that, and I think that had a lot to do with it. In the three chapters he added, he takes a crack or two at me, and before that he'd been very carefully giving me inside information. He managed to get about 50 cases, really important cases, cleared for me right after that big (July 29, 1952) conference. (General) Samford, who tried to explain away the whole thing, must have been privately in favor of getting it out because shortly after that he allowed headquarters to release all these cases to me with a definite clearance and a statement they were all unexplained, unsolved...
"Regional Encounters" The FC Files (1994) by Francis L. Ridge a 40-year veteran UFO researcher with NICAP, MUFON, and CUFOS. Covers the best UFO sightings in the six-state region, from Missouri to Ohio and Indiana to Tennessee, since the turn of the 20th century.
Full text: (PDF) e-Book
"Flying saucers are real" (1950) by Major (US Marine Corps) Donald Keyhoe 1950 classic book. Keyhoe headed NICAP, the biggest civilian UFO investigative organizations of the 1950s-1960s in USA.
Full text: nicap, sacred-texts, esolibris
"The Book of the Damned" (1919) by Charles Hoy Fort.
[note: This book makes it quite obvious that the UFO-phenomenon is not a modern space-age mythology invented by Hollywood or a product of "Cold War"-nerves, or some kind of WWII Nazi secret weapon etc, as UFO sightings go at least as far back as the 1800s]
The title of the book referred to what Charles Fort termed the "damned" data - data which had been damned, or excluded, by modern Science because of its not conforming to accepted guidelines. The way Fort sees it, mainstream scientists are trend-followers who believe in what is accepted and popular, and never really look for a truth that may be contrary to what they believe. He also compares the close-mindedness of many scientists to that of religious fundamentalists, implying that the supposed "battle" between science and religion is just a smokescreen for the fact that, in his view, science is, in essence, simply a de facto religion. This is a theme that Fort would develop more heavily in his later works, New Lands and Lo! particularly.
Interesting but non-essential reading material of questionable value, e.g. Aztec crash book by Scully, MJ12 docs
"UFOLOGY I - A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects" by James M. McCampbell (1973,1976). Full-text: nicap. [note: superseded by later, more elaborate studies. The author put out an update "UFOLOGY II: Some final answers" published in 1998. Paul R. Hill's book "Unconventional Flying Objects" published in 1995. Also refer to my 2008 UFO Technical Overview: What we think we know about UFOs webpage].
"Behind the Flying Saucers" (1950) by journalist Frank Scully. It deals with the alleged Aztec 1948 UFO crash. Full-text: .DOC (Word) full-text version.
Scully's book on Aztec had big impact at the time it was published, but the incident had been been written off as a hoax by the UFO research community. However, interesting new aspects of the "Aztec UFO-crash" case were uncovered recently by Scott Ramsey. According to his Website:
Scott D. Ramsey has been researching the UFO Incident at Aztec since he first became aware of it back in 1988 while on a business trip to the Four Corners area. He has been aggressively tracking down witnesses and chasing any and all leads since 1990. He has traveled to 28 states in fourteen years, spent hundreds of hours in various archives, interviewed over 60 witnesses tied to the event.
New material on the Aztec UFO case include:
Scott Ramsey's upcoming book
a video documentary on Ramsey's research by Canadian producer Paul Kimball, released in 2004. Below is Kimball introducing the documentary in a UFO conference (note: Kimball has since changed his mind and considers the Aztec case to be conclusively proven a hoax):
Ramsey discussed his work in the Paracast (homepage) in Sep-2007.
www.theblackvault.com archives of over 440.000 pages of declassified US government documents (scanned into .PDF files). Since Apr-2008 it also offers scanned past issues of MUFON Journal from 1970s until 2000.
"Disclosure Project Briefing Document" (2001) by Steven M. Greer, M.D., Director and Theodore C. Loder III, Ph.D.
Full text: HTML (!!!BIG DOCUMENT!!!). Book: scribd
Note: Dr Greer is considered unreliable by many UFO researchers, due to dubious claims.
bluebookarchive.org, (alt: footnote.com) USAF Project Blue Book Archive. Offers downloadable .PDFs of over 12.000 UFO reports submitted between 1947-1969, of which over 1.500 were listed as "unknown" i.e. "true UFO" -- see Comprehensive Catalog of 1500 Project Blue Book UFO Unknowns (.PDF). But keep in mind that after 1953 USAF Project Blue Book was essentially a public-relations scheme with a mission to "debunk" UFOs and convince the public there is nothing there. Also, as found more recently, General Carrol Bollender's 1969 memo "the BlueBook system excluded any UFO sightings which affect national security" (e.g. UFO visits to nuclear weapon storage and ICBM facilities). Of particular interest is "Blue Book Special Report 14" (1955), in which 21.5% of the sightings were classified as "unknowns".
Disputed authenticity Majestic 12 Documents (a/k/a MJ12), which surfaced in mid-1980s. The ones considered authentic by the core MJ12 researchers (Robert Wood, Ryan Wood, Stanton Friedman) are:
Truman-Forrestal Memo (TF) 24-Sep-1947 - sent on one roll of film from NM
Eisenhower Briefing Document (EBD) 18-Nov-1952 - [pdf 516KB] sent on one roll of film from NM
The Cutler-Twining Memo (CT) 14-Jun-1954 - found in a folder ("slipped in") at the National Archives after anonymous tip
SOM1-01: almost certainly a fake (although the Woods give it highest rating for authenticity), see Joint statement that SOM101 is hoaxed, is the "Special Operations Manual" SOM1-01: Extraterrestrial Entities and Technology, Recovery and Disposal, on film sent to Don Berliner from Wisconsin
However, many other UFO researchers (Brad Sparks, Robert Hastings, Kevin Randle, Jan Aldrich, Jerome Clark etc) consider the MJ12 documents fraudulent. To them, the only remaining question is whether MJ12 docs were created by USAF/OSI as part of a disinformation campaign, or inside the UFO community to catalyze disclosure and/or propel specific people into the spotlight.
New MJ12 revelations by Brad Sparks (MUFON 2007 conference).
Robert Hastings' 2009 series:
Operation Bird Droppings: The MJ12 Saga continues,
Update 1, Update 2
For those who don't know the background behind MJ12, it's claimed that in the aftermath of the crash of an extraterrestrial craft in Jul-1947, near Roswell in New Mexico USA, a small super-secret group known as Majestic-12 (or MJ-12) was formed in USA to handle the UFO issue. The first four Directors of Central Intelligence, the first Secretary of Defense, and several outstanding scientists and military leaders were allegedly part of the team.
Robert M. Wood, Ph.D. began reconstructing the (MAJIC) Special Operations Manual SOM1-01 in 1995 (see occupants page). Here is what MJ12 proponents said recently:
The fundamental story told by the MJ-12 documents is this:
unconventional craft (UFOs) have maneuvered over the United States,
causing enormous concern to our nation's security agencies, and
some craft have faltered to earth where highly secret, and
sometimes illegal, operations have recovered extraordinary
technology and non-human creatures. All means were authorized to
hide and discredit these phenomena. If you do not believe such
events are possible, then you will reject the MJ-12 documents,
and you will interpret other information through this same lens
of denial. Conversely, if you suspect such events may have
happened, you would expect to see some leaked documents like MJ-
12 from whistleblowers.
Stanton Friedman counters MJ12 critics:
"I compiled and published lists of many details that were in the EBD, CT and TF memos that were not known to be true prior to receipt of the documents, but that later investigation proved to be true. How did a hoaxer know? I located Flight logs for General Twining and his pilot substantiating his flight to New Mexico on July 7, 1947, as noted in the EBD, and other relevant flights. Twining's log had been in a classified box at the Library of Congress Manuscript Division for decades."
Ufopsi.com Library collection of UFO-related files coming from official sources, released through the freedom of information laws.
Internet Sacred Text Archive (some good, many junk/hoaxes/urban legends etc) documents about UFOs, posted long ago on a pre-Internet bulletin boards
Official government positions (if any at all)
USA: US DoD (includes material from USAF, NASA, NSA, FBI) since 1969 - Summary: no UFO has ever given any indication of threat to national security, no evidence that UFO represent technological developments or principles beyond the range of present-day scientific knowledge or that they are extraterrestrial vehicles. Roswell was a Mogul balloon.
UK: Flying Saucer Working Party, Condign Report, UK MoD Files: 186 files in total, to be released to The National Archives (TNA).
Spain introduced limited releases of information during the 1970s, with the release of pictures on UFOs watching military flight operations over the Grand Canaries. Limited releases were also made by the Brazilian government (2004) revealing a flotilla of unknown space objects that passed over their airspace and industrial facilities in southern Brazil in 1986. In addition, Belgium, Russia and the United Kingdom have also made recent limited releases of declassified official documents.
Freely downloadable from Edonkey2000 P2P network (if you're a total newbie, use the free Emule sw client -- you need to have P2P installed, as these are NOT http links)
The UFO Encyclopedia - This is THE reference for UFO related information. Jerome Clark, board member of CUFOS (J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies) and editor of the CUFOS magazine the International UFO Reporter (IUR), has been following the UFO subject since the 1950s. In his UFO encyclopedia, J.Clark assembled the most comprehensive set of references on UFOs ever created, including an entry on abductions by T.E.Bullard, and an examination of the radar-visual evidence in the RB47 case by Brad Sparks (a case which may be the first instrumentally-documented demonstration of UFOs engaging in intelligent behavior). Expensive, but useful reference.
Lost science series by Leonard G. Cramp, a former British Aerospace engineer and former Vice President of the British UFO Research Association (BUFORA), who has studied UFOs since the 1950s. He had the opportunity to meet with scientists, pilots and people from all walks of life in Britain, who had been involved in UFO close-encounters and gain access to information. Cramp accepted the Adamski contactee story, which is rejected by most UFO researchers. He nevertheless provides an interesting account of his conception of the use of gravity and anti-gravity effects in relation to the appearance, behavior and effects of UFOs.
The Ufo Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting Ufo Sightings by Alan Hendry, investigator for J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS). In mid-1970s CUFOS received funds allowing it a full time employee, and Allan Hendry, with a B.A. in astronomy and a friend of Dr Hynek, got the job. His main task was editing the CUFOS newsletter and answering the 'UFO Hot Line', a service operated via local police departments. Hendry personally investigated over 1300 UFO reports and wrote this book.
Stanton Friedman's books
"Crash at Corona" a study of the alleged UFO crash at Roswell, New Mexico in July-1947
"Top Secret/MAJIC" by Stanton Friedman, examines the documentary evidence for the existence of a clandestine government group called "Majestic-12", formed in 1947 to deal with the remains of a crashed flying saucer near Roswell, New Mexico USA.
"The UFO enigma: A new review of the physical evidence" by Peter A. Sturrock (Prof.Emeritus of Physics at Stanford Univ) - also available online
Search your favorite online bookstore (Amazon etc) for books by:
J.Allen Hynek, Jerome Clark, Richard Hall, Stanton Friedman, Timothy Good, Richard M. Dolan, Don Berliner, Kevin Randle, Budd Hopkins, John Mack, Peter Sturrock, Steven Greer, Jim Marrs, Jean-Jacques Velasco, Jaques Vallee. Or better, visit Anomalia.org's english-language UFO books or "Serious UFO Studies" or Guidebooks for an Amateur Ufologist collections of UFO-related books at Amazon and choose from those shortlists.
Might be interesting, but haven't read them yet:
Project Identification: The first Scientific Study of UFO Phenomena. Prentice-Hall 1981 ISBN 0-13-730713-6 by Harley D. Rutledge, Ph.D.
You are welcome to subscribe (free) to the UFO Updates RSS feed.
If you enjoyed this page, you are welcome to link to it from your Website or Blog, or add it to "social bookmarking" services so others can find it too.